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The software test is an important section of any IT project. The software is tested for identifying bugs and finding errors that may depressingly affect the user experience. Testing is generally classified as automation testing and manual testing. 

What is Manual Testing?

It is a process of identifying bugs, defects, and issues in the software program. In this type of software testing test cases are manually implemented by a QA manual tester without making use of any automated tools. Software Manual Testing is the most primitive method of all test types and it assists to find critical bugs in the software program or app. The key objective of the manual test is to make sure that the app is error & defect-free and is functioning great to offer good quality work to users.

Techniques of Manual Software Testing

Manual Software testing can be classified into the following methodology:

  1. White Box Testing

white box testing is the test methodology where the manual software tester knows about the structure and code of the app. It is also recognized as a transparent box and glass box test. This is used by software developers to execute unit tests. White box test methods comprise branch testing, data flow testing, control flow testing, decision coverage, statement coverage, and path testing.

  1. Black Box Testing

On the flip side, the black box method means that the software tester doesn’t have the skill and understanding of the structure or code of the app. The QA specialist interacts with the app and tests the non-functional and functional behavior of the app. Several black-box test methods can facilitate the software tester in their hunt for detecting defects and bugs.

  1. Gray Box Testing

It is a blend of black-box and white-box tests. The main purpose of the gray box test is to detect defects and bugs either due to structure or inappropriate use and handling of the app. Gray box testing is implemented when you require fixing a significant issue in web apps. There are a number of tools to assist you to carry out the gray test of apps.

Manual Testing Process

The process or procedure of manual testing is as below:

  1. Understanding the Requirements
  2. Test Plan Creation
  3. Write Test Cases
  4. Conduct The Tests
  5. Defect Logging
  6. Defect Fix & Re-Verification

Read the brief about the manual testing process:

manual testing process

  1. Understanding the Requirements

For QA manual testing to be a success, a software tester first needs to realize the necessities that mean, how the software is required to function. They help manual testers know the software’s objective, what the tester needs to do, what sections to test, etc. Understanding this information before implanting to test is significant because, as with all software testing, the key objective is to get hold of the software as closely as possible to make it error-free or bug-free.

Some significant tasks of requirement analysis:

  • To identify test conditions
  • To check the basis of the test (tests basis is the crucial info on which test cases are based, like architecture, requirements, design specifications, product risk analysis, and interfaces
  • To plan the tests
  • To design the test environment set-up and determine the required tools and infrastructure
  1. Test Plan Creation

Test planning comprises creating a document that illustrates a broad approach and test goals. It counts assessing the test basis, determining the test conditions based on scrutiny of test items, drafting test cases, and finally designing the test environment. Exit criteria or completion should be stated so that we know when the test (at any phase) is ended.

  • To find out the risks and scope and discover the testing objectives
  • To verify the required test resources such as test environments, people, etc.
  • To list and schedule test analysis and design duties, test execution, carrying out, and evaluation.
  1. Write Test Cases

After the necessities have been understood, it is now time to develop and hierarchize test cases by using methods and creating test data for those testing. Test cases function as reference guides for QA engineers, laying out the instructions as well as steps to test the distinct scenarios and functions within the software application.

  1. Conduct The Tests

After preparing the testing environment and writing the test cases, it is a crucial time to start testing. It is a fundamental testing procedure in which real work is done. Once every test has been done, it should be marked as having skipped, failed, or passed. When performing the manual tests, keeping crucial notes is important on what happened that resulted in a failure of the test, as it is important to have access to these metrics for plans.

  1. Defect Logging

This is a procedure to identify defects in the app under test or product by testing or keeping records from customers and making advanced versions of the product that mitigate and fix the flaws.

  1. Defect Fix and Further-Verification

When a software developer makes crucial code alterations and verifies the modifications then he/she can build bug status as ‘Fixed’ and the bug issues are shifted to QA manual testing team. At this phase, the tester performs the re-verification and testing of the altered code.


Even though manual testing includes excessive work, it is crucial to make sure a high level of quality and satisfying user experience. Sometimes, the manual QA tester can easily identify things automated testers cannot. The keys to successful manual tests comprise understanding the software needs, writing good test cases, and defect logging.

Related: Why Manual Testing is still important?

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