120+ manual testing interview questions

Manual Testing Interview Questions – Every QA Should Read

In today’s competitive world, testing is critical to the success of any software product. Manual tests are important in software development because they can be used in situations where automated testing isn’t possible. This Blog about Manual Testing Interview Questions will help you learn software testing.

With this thorough list of over 120 manual testing interview questions and answers, you’ll be ready for your software testing interviews. These manual testing interview questions are appropriate for both fresher and experienced candidates.

Let’s start by going through some of the most common Manual Testing Interview Questions.

120+ Manual Testing Interview Questions:

Below are the 120+ manual testing interview questions and answers:

1) What is Software Testing?

Software testing is a process to test whether the actual product is matched with an expected requirement or not and if getting an issue then it could be resolved before the released product to the market and at last ensure that product is bug-free.

2) What is manual testing?

Manual testing is a type of testing that involves the validation of the requirements of the application by executing a predefined set of test cases manually without the use of any automation tool.

3) Why is Software Testing Required?

Software testing is a process that verifies the product is secure and good enough to be released to the market. The reason for software testing is to find defects, errors, and unmatched or missing requirements compared to the actual requirement.

  • It points out the bug and error which is made during the development.
  • If identify issues at the starting stage of development then we can reduce the coding cycles.
  • Ensure that product is defect-free and the product meets the market standard.
  • Make sure that the application doesn’t result in any failures.

automation testing interview questions

4) What are the two main categories of software testing?

Software testing is a vast domain but it can be categorized into two types such as:

  • Manual Testing– Manual testing is the oldest type of software testing where the tester executes all test cases without using any tools mean-tested whole application manually by QA testers.
  • Automation Testing– Automation Testing is the process of executing repeating predefined test cases using an automation testing tool. The main focus of automation testing is replacing manual activity with automated test cases

5) Do you know the difference between quality control and quality assurance?

Quality Control Quality Assurance
Quality Control is a product-based approach of running a program to define if the application has any defect, as well as make sure software fulfills all of the requirements. Quality assurance is a process-oriented approach that focuses on making sure that the methods, techniques used to make quality deliverables are applied correctly.
QA means planning for doing any testing process QC means doing action for executing the planned process
QA does not involve executing the test cases. QC is always involved in executing the test cases.
QA is the technique of handling the quality of the application. QC is a method to verify the quality of software

6) What is quality control? Is it similar to Quality Assurance?

Quality control is a product-based strategy of running a program to define if it has any defect, as well as create sure software fulfills all requirements with end-user.

So, Quality control is not similar to Quality assurance, Quality assurance is a process-oriented approach. It is focused only on process, methods, and techniques which is used to create quality deliverables that are applied correctly.

7) What different types of manual testing are there?

Manual testing is divided into different types which are listed below:

  • Acceptance Testing
  • System Testing
  • Black Box Testing
  • White Box Testing
  • Unit Testing
  • Integration Testing

8) Explain the difference between alpha testing and beta testing.

Alpha and beta both testing types are types of user acceptance testing. Find the brief description of alpha vs beta testing here.

  • Alpha TestingAlpha testing is a process that is performed before realizing the product to identify a bug.
  • Beta Testing – Beta testing is a process that is performed by the end-user after realizing the product.

9) What are the different levels of manual testing?

We have different 4 levels of manual testing which is described below:

  • Unit testing – Unit testing is testing where we test separate units or the smallest pieces of source code. The goal of unit testing is to separate all parts and show that all parts are worked without any defect.
  • Integration Testing – It is a type of testing where individual units are combined and tested there is no bug after integrating the separate units.
  • System Testing – System testing is defined as the testing of the whole integrated product. System testing is black-box testing and it is performed in the form of a functional requirement specification.
  • User Acceptance Testing – User acceptance testing is a final level of testing, UAT is performed by the end-user or client. In UAT testing verify that software or product is ready to be released or not into the real world.

10) What is a testbed in manual testing?

The testbed environment is used for application testing; we can test hardware as well as software programs also. The testbed consists of hardware, network configuration, software, and other related software.

11) Explain the procedure for manual testing?

In The manual testing process follow the below steps:

  • Project Planning and Control
  • Project Design
  • Test case Execution
  • Evaluating exit criteria and Reporting
  • Test Closure activities

12) What is the test case?

One type of document that has a set of conditions that is performed on the particular application in order to verify the expected result of the feature is called a test case.

Test case documents include test steps, preconditions, postconditions, test data, and verification requirements.

13) What is API testing?

Perform software testing API directly from their functionality, reliability, security, and performance in API testing.

Application has three separate layers:

  • First is the Presentation Layer or user interface.
  • The second layer is Business Layer or application user interface for business logic processing.
  • The third and last layer is Database Layer for

14) Do you know the difference between verification and validation in testing?

Verification testing is done without executing the code. Verification is a static technique. Verification is coming before validation. Verification is the process where verify the quality of the product. Verification is the reduce chances of failure in the product.

Validation testing is including the execution of the code. Validation is dynamic testing. Validation comes after Verification. Validation is the process in which the actual requirements of the customer match with the software functionality. Validation is done after completing the development process.

15) Do you know the difference between a bug and a defect?

Tester finds fault in the software during testing it is called a bug and when a product goes to live at that time developer detect the difference between actual result and expected result is call defect.

16) What are the advantages of manual testing?

  • Manual testing is cheaper as compared to automation testing.
  • Point of view as an end-user, product analysis is possible only in manual testing.
  • Using manual testing you can also be done GUI testing accurately because using automation difficult to test visual accessibility and preferences.
  • Manual testing is used where the test script is not repeated and reused more times and mainly for short-term projects.
  • Manual testing is best at an early stage of development.

17) What are the drawbacks of manual testing?

  • Some types of testing are not possible to do manually like load testing, performance testing, etc.
  • Sometimes testing is more time-consuming than manual testing like regression testing.
  • Manual testing has a limited scope as compared to automation testing.
  • For long-term projects, manual testing is very expensive.

18) What’s the role of documentation in Manual Testing?

Documentation plays an important role in achieving good software testing. In the documentation, we are including details like project requirements and specifications, designs, basic business rules, inspection reports, configurations, test planning, test cases, bug reporting, user manual, etc.

Using test cases documentation will easy to estimate the testing efforts that will need to spend with test tracking and tracing requirements. Some of the applied documentation associated with software testing are listed below:

  • Test Plan
  • Test Scenario
  • Test Case
  • Traceability Matrix

19)What makes a good test engineer?

A software test engineer is any professional who ensures that the product meets all the expectations and requirements. A software test engineer creates a process for testing a particular product.

  • A good tester should easily understand the priority of the task and should have the ability to take the requirements of the customer
  • A good test engineer should have the ability to assert his ideas to maintain a cooperative relationship with developers
  • Tester has the ability to communicate which he can report a bug for negative things in a positive way with developers as well as with customers and management people also
  • Ability to take a risk whenever they need to make important decisions

20) What is the test harness?

A test harness is the cluster of software and test information. Into the test harness test a program unit by running it in a different environment like pressure, load, data-driven, and observing its behavior, reaction, and outcomes. Test Harness is mainly divided into two parts:

  • A Test Execution Engine
  • Test script repository

21)What is test closure?

Test closure is a document that has a summary of all test cases which is made during the software development life cycle. Test closure has also detail about the analysis and remove bugs and errors found. Test closure also contains a report of executed test cases, total no. of open bugs, total no. of rejected bugs.

22) Do you know, the difference between Positive and Negative Testing?

Positive Testing Negative Testing
Positive testing ensures that the application working as an expected result if not then the test is fails Negative testing ensures that the application can handle the input or unwanted user behavior
In this testing, the tester tests the application with a valid set of data. In this testing, tester test application with an invalid set of data and check their creativity and validation against invalid data

23) Define what is a critical bug.

A critical bug is a bug that is the impacts a major functionality of the given application. This means affecting a large area of the functionality or breaking any functionality and there is no other method to overcome this problem. The application cannot be delivered to the end-user unless the critical bug is fixed.

24) What is the pesticide paradox? How to overcome it?

Based on the pesticide paradox, if the same tests are carried out again and again then the outcome of these test cases are the same, so for the same test cases tester is not able to find new bugs. Developers will be extra careful in those parts where the tester found more bugs and might not look into the other areas.

Below describe Methods to prevent pesticide paradox are following:

  • Write a whole new different set of test cases continually to exercise different parts of the software.
  • On daily basis review the existing test cases and add new test cases to them.

Using these above methods, it is possible that we can find more bugs in the segment where bug numbers are dropped.

25) What is Defect Cascading in Software Testing?

Defect Cascading is the action of triggering other defects in the application. During testing, while defects go unnoticed then other defects are invoked. As an outcome, a greater number of defects crop up in the later stage of development. If defect cascading continues then impact on other components of the application and determining the affected component becomes more difficult. You can make different test cases for resolving this issue but it is very difficult and time-consuming.

26) What is the term ‘quality’ mean when testing?

Quality software is defect-free, delivered on time and within budget, meets conditions and expectations, and is maintainable. Still ‘Quality’ is a personal term. Quality will depend on who the ‘customer’ is and their overall influence in the scheme of things. The accounting department might define quality in terms of earnings while an end-user might describe quality as user-supportive and defect-free.

27) What is black box testing, and what are the various techniques?

Black Box testing also known as specification-based testing, analyses the functionality of the software without knowing about the internal structure of the application. The goal of this testing is to check the whole workflow of the system is works correctly and meets user demands. Various black box testing techniques are listed below:

  • Equivalence Partitioning
  • Boundary Value Analysis
  • Decision Table Based Technique
  • Cause-effect Graphing
  • Use Case Testing

28) What is white box testing, and what are the various techniques?

White-box testing is also known as structure-based testing, for white box testing requires knowledge of the internal structure of the application. The purpose of this testing is to improve design and usability, check the flow of input/outputs, enhance security. Below are the various kind of white box testing techniques:

  • Statement Coverage
  • Decision Coverage
  • Condition Coverage
  • Multiple Condition Coverage

29) What are the Experience-based testing techniques?

Experienced-based testing is all about finding, research, and learning. The tester continuously studies and analyses the product and accordingly applies his skills, trick, and experience to develop test strategies and test cases to perform necessary testing. Various experience-based testing techniques are:

  • Exploratory testing
  • Error Guessing

30) What is a top-down and bottom-up approach to testing?

Top-Down – Testing occurs from top to bottom. This is, high-level modules are tested first and after that low-level modules. Lastly, the low-level modules are integrated into a high-level state to guarantee the framework is working as it is expected to.

Bottom-Up – Testing occurs from base levels to high-up levels. The lowest level modules are tested first and thereafter high-level state modules. Lastly, the high-level state modules are corresponded to a low level to guarantee the framework is filling in as it has been proposed to.

31) Do you know, what is difference between smoke testing and sanity testing?

Features Smoke testing Sanity testing
System Builds Tests are executed on initial builds of software outcome Tests are done on builds that have passed smoke tests & contests of regression tests
Motive of Testing To measure the stability of the newly created build to face off additional rigorous testing To consider rationality & originality of the functionalities of software build
Subset of? Is a subset of acceptance testing Is a subset of regression testing
Documentation Affects documentation and scripting work Doesn’t highlight any sort of documentation
Test Coverage Surface & wide approach to include all the major functionalities without going too deep Narrow & deep approach involving thorough testing of functionalities and features
Performed By? Executed by testers or developers Executed by testers

32) Do you know the difference between dynamic testing and static testing?

Static testing Dynamic testing
Static Testing is a white box testing technique that entails browsing records to identify flaws in the very early stages of the SDLC. Dynamic testing is performed at the end of the software development lifecycle and affects the execution of code. It confirms and approves the output to ensure that the desired outcomes are achieved.
Static Testing is used during the validation process. During the validation step, dynamic testing starts.
Before deploying the code, static testing is moved out. After the code has been deployed, dynamic testing is moved out.
In this form of testing, code error detection and program execution are not a problem. Code execution is essential for dynamic testing.

33) How will you determine when to stop testing?

It can be hard to know when to stop testing. Many modern software applications are so complicated and run in such a related environment that thorough testing is impossible. The following are some regular criteria to consider when considering when to end testing:

  • Deadlines are very important (release deadlines, testing deadlines, etc.)
  • Completed test cases with a certain percentage of the passing
  • When the test budget runs out
  • When the coverage of code, functionality, or requirements arrives at a certain point, it is said to be complete.
  • When the bug rate drops below a specific threshold,
  • When the beta or alpha testing stage is over

To decide when to end testing, use the following scientific methods:

1) Conclusion based on the number of test cases that pass or fail:

  1. Before the test execution cycle, organize a predetermined number of test cases.
  2. All test cases must be completed. During each testing cycle.
  3. When all test cases are passed, the testing technique is terminated.
  4. Alternatively, if the ratio of failure in the previous testing cycle is exceedingly low, testing can be terminated.

2) Metric-driven decision:

  1. Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF): that is calculated by calculating the average operational time before the system fails.
  2. Coverage metrics: by keeping the way of how many instructions were executed during tests.
  3. Defect density: calculating the number of defects per 1000 lines of code or the number of open bugs, as well as their severity levels.

34) What if the software is so buggy it can’t really be tested at all?

Often, testers come across a bug that cannot be fixed. In such cases, the best course of action is for testers to go via the process of reporting any flaws or blocking-type issues that arise, with attention to critical bugs. Because this kind of issue might result in serious issues such as insufficient unit or integration testing, poor design, wrong build or release methods, and so on, management should be contacted and given documentation as evidence of the problem.

35) How do you test a product when the requirements aren’t set yet?

It is possible that a requirement bundle for a product isn’t available. It could take a bunch of work to figure out if an app has a lot of unexpected functionality, and it could suggest more serious issues with the software development process. If a feature isn’t required for the application’s purpose, it should be eliminated. Make a test plan based on the assumptions you’ve made about the product if all else fails. However, make sure that all of your assumptions are enough documented in the test plan.

36) How do you know the code has met specifications?

Code that works is bug-free, and is understandable and manageable is believed “good code.” Most organizations have coding ‘standards’ that all developers are expected to follow, but everyone has their own opinion on what is best, as well as how many limitations are too many or too few. There are many methods available, such as a traceability matrix, to ensure that requirements are linked to test cases. And when all of the test cases pass, that means the code meets the requirement.

37) What is ‘configuration management’?

Every well-functioning company has a “master plan” that abstracts how it will operate and complete tasks. It is identical to software development and testing. SCM is a group of processes, policies, and tools for organizing, controlling, coordinating, and tracking:

  • Code
  • Documentation
  • Designs and tools
  • Problems
  • Change requests
  • Compilers and libraries

38) Is it true that we can do system testing at any stage?

In system testing, all of the software’s components are tested as a whole to ensure that the final product fits the required requirements. As a result, no. Only until all of the units are in an area and performing properly can the system testing begin. Before the UAT, system testing is frequently performed (User Acceptance Testing).

39) What are some best practices that you should follow when writing test cases?

The following are some approaches to follow when writing test cases:

  • Prioritize which test cases to build based on your application’s risk reviews and project timeframes.
  • Mark the 80/20 rule in mind. To get the best coverage, you should have 20% of your tests cover 80% of your application.

Rather than trying to test all of your instances at once, improvise as you go.

  • Create a list of all of your test cases and categorize them according to business scenarios and functionality.
  • Verify that test cases are modular and that test case steps are as detailed as possible.
  • Write test cases in a way that others can easily understand and vary them if necessary.
  • Always carry end-user requirements in mind because, at the end of the day, the product is developed for the client.
  • To hold a solid release cycle, actively use a test management solution.
  • Maintain an eye on your test cases frequently. Remove unessential and duplicate test cases and write unique test cases.

40) Can automation testing replace manual testing?

Manual testing is not replaced by automation testing. You can’t automate everything, no matter how useful your automated tests are. Manual tests are good in software development because they can be used in situations where automation isn’t possible.

Both automated and manual testing has advantages and disadvantages. Manual testing allows us to have a better understanding of the problem and analyze different test angles with greater freedom.

Automated testing saves time in the long run by executing a high number of surface-level tests in a short period of time.

41) What is Quality Assurance and what are the different activities involved in Quality assurance?

Quality assurance is a process-driven approach that corresponds if the process of developing the product is correct and conforms to all the standards. It is studied as a preventive measure. This is because it specifies the weakness in the process to build software. It involves activities like document review, test case review, walk-throughs, inspection, other reviews, etc.

42) Do you know, what is the difference between Validation and Verification?

Verification – It is a technique, in which documents, design, code, and the program are checked to ensure the requirements are fulfilled or not. Here testing is accomplished without executing the code. The verification process especially includes activities like reviews and inspection.

Validation – It is a dynamic mechanism of testing and validating where testing is done by executing the code and to check the software product meets the customer’s needs or not. Validation contains activities like functional and non-functional testing techniques.

43) What is SDLC?

SDLC stands for Software Development Life Cycle. It guides all the activities performed during software development like requirement gathering, requirement analysis, designing, coding or implementation, testing, deployment, and maintenance.

44) What are the different types of testing?

Testing can largely be defined into two types:

  • Functional testing – Functional testing affects validating the functional specifications of the system.
  • Non Functional testing – Non-functional testing is a type of testing that affects testing non-functional requirements of the system such as performance, scalability, security, endurance, portability, etc.

Moving by the way the testing is done, it can be categorized as-

  • Black box testing – In black-box testing, the tester does need to not have any knowledge of the internal architecture or implementation of the system. The tester interacts with the system through the interface providing input and validating the obtained output.
  • White box testing – In white box testing, the tester studies the internal architecture of the system as well as the quality of source code on different parameters like code optimization, code coverage, reusability, etc.
  • Gray box testing – In Gray box testing, the tester has partial access to the inner architecture of the system e.g. the tester may contain access to the design documents or database structure. This information helps the tester to test the application nicely.

45) What is performance testing?

Performance testing is a type of non-functional testing in which the performance of the system is considered under expected or higher load. The various performance parameters considered during performance testing are – response time, reliability, resource usage, scalability, etc. The various types of performance testing are – Load, Stress, Endurance, Spike, and Volume Testing.

46) What is a testbed?

A testbed is a test environment used for testing an application. A testbed configuration can consist of the hardware and software needs of the application under test including – operating system, hardware configurations, software configurations, tomcat, database.

47) What is a test plan?

A test plan is a formal document describing the scope of testing, the approach to be used, resources required, and the time estimate of carrying out the testing process. It is borrowed from the requirement documents (Software Requirement Specifications).

48) What is a test scenario?

A test scenario is borrowed from a use case. It is used for end-to-end testing of a component of an application. A single test scenario can accommodate many test cases. Scenario testing is particularly useful when there is a time control while testing.

49) What is a Test case?

A test case is used to test the conformance of an application with its prerequisite specifications. It is a group of conditions with pre-requisites, input values, and expected results in a documented form.

50) What are some attributes of a test case?

A test case can have the following traits-

  • Testcase Id – A unique identifier of the test case.
  • Test Summary – A one-sentence summary of the test scenario
  • Description – Straightforward description of the test case.
  • Prerequisite or pre-condition – A group of prerequisites that must be followed before executing the test steps.
  • Test Steps – Straightforward steps for performing the test case.
  • Expected result – Expected result to pass the test.
  • Actual result – The actual result after completing the test steps.
  • Test Result – Pass or Fail status of the test execution.
  • Automation Status – Identifier of automation like whether the application is automated or not.
  • Date – The test execution date.
  • Executed by – Name of the somebody executing the test case.

51) What is Test data?

Test data is data that is used to test the software with different inputs and helps to verify whether the corresponding output is as per the expected result or not. This data is assembled based on the business requirements.

52) What is a Test script?

A test script is an automated test case written or authored in any programming or scripting language. These are a set of instructions to evaluate the functioning of an application.

53) What is an Error in Software Testing?

Since we all are humans it is evident to make a mistake. Correspondingly, an error is a similar case that happens in software testing due to some missing scenario in the requirements, some issues in design, or some mistakes in the implementation.

54) What are Statement testing and statement coverage in white box testing?

It is a white box testing approach in which test scripts are intended to execute code explanations.

Statement Coverage is the proportion of the level of explanations of code executed by the test scripts out of the all-out code declaration in the application. The assertion scope is the most un-favored measurement for really taking a look at test scope.

55) What is decision testing or branch testing?

Decision testing or branch testing is a white box testing approach in which test scope is estimated by the level of choice points(e.g. if-else conditions) executed out of the complete choice focuses in the application.

56) What is unit testing?

Unit testing is the principal level of testing performed on individual modules, parts, or bits of code. In unit testing, the singular modules are checked as autonomous parts to guarantee that they work accurately and are fit to be gathered/incorporated with different parts.

This testing is performed by designers. The designers normally compose unit tests for the piece of code composed by them.

57) What is integration testing?

Integration testing is the subsequent level testing performed after unit testing in which we test the connecting between the modules alongside the start to finish testing of the incorporated parts. It very well may be performed by utilizing both white box and discovery testing strategies.

58) What are the different types of integration testing?

Different types of integration testing are shown below:

  • Big Bang Integration Testing: In big bang integration testing, testing begins solely after every one of the modules is coordinated.
  • Top-down Integration Testing: In this testing/mix begins from top modules to bring down level modules.
  • Bottom-up Integration Testing: In this testing begins from lower-level modules to more significant level modules up in the ordered progression.
  • Hybrid Integration Testing: Hybrid joining testing is the mixture of both Top-down and base-up combination testing. In this methodology, the mix begins from the center layer, and testing is completed in both courses.

59) What is a stub?

In top-down integration testing, ordinarily, lower-level modules are not created while starting testing/combination with high level modules. In those cases, Stubs or faker modules are utilized that mimic the working of modules by giving a hard-coded or expected result dependent on the input data.

60) What is a driver?

On account of bottom-up combination testing, drivers are utilized to mimic the working of high-level modules to test the connected modules lower in the level.

61) What is system testing?

System testing is a sort of testing where the application overall is tested for its consistency with practical and non-practical prerequisites. It is done by the QA group after the finishing of integration testing and before the last acknowledgment testing.

Since in this testing, the entire framework is checked from start to finish and the information on coding or inner design isn’t needed. Henceforth, it goes under Black-box Testing.

62) What is acceptance testing?

testing is performed by the potential end-client or clients to check to assume the product fulfills the business prerequisites and can be acknowledged for use.

63) What is UAT Testing?

UAT testing is the last level of the testing lifecycle. Its principle focus is to approve that product is working as per business necessities. It additionally guarantees that the application is easy to use and can deal with complex situations at its best prior to delivering the item to genuine clients.

64) What is End-To-End Testing?

It is a sort of testing where the whole application goes through testing, to test every use of the product is functioning truly to form and there is no fault staying in it. It guarantees that the application is easy to use and meets the business prerequisites.

65) What is Adhoc Testing?

Adhoc testing is an unstructured method of testing that is performed with no conventional documentation or appropriate preparation.

66) What is monkey testing?

Monkey testing is a kind of testing that is performed casually with practically no predefined experiments or test inputs.

67) How is monkey testing different from Adhoc testing?

On account of Adhoc testing despite the fact that there are no predefined or archived experiments still, analyzers have knowledge of the application. While on account of monkey testing analyzers don’t have any knowledge of the application.

68) What is exploratory testing?

Exploratory testing is a sort of testing where new step actions are added and refreshed while investigating the framework or executing experiments. In exploratory testing, the test plan and execution run concurrently.

69) What is load testing?

It checks the application capacity under expected client loads. The goal is to distinguish execution bottlenecks before the product application goes live. In this way, in load testing, we are focusing on client loads.

It is used to confirm that the framework/application can deal with the normal number of exchanges and to check the framework/application work under both typical and high load conditions

70) What is Stress Testing?

Stress testing is a sort of execution testing in which an application’s nature is observed under a higher responsibility than anticipated. Stress testing is done to observe memory drain and the strength of the application.

71) What is volume testing?

Volume testing is a sort of execution testing that aides in really looking at the presentation of an application when exposed to an enormous volume of information.</p.

72) What is endurance testing or Soak testing?

Endurance testing is a sort of execution testing that targets observing issues like memory spills when an application is exposed to stack tests for a significant amount of time.

73) What is spike testing?

Spike testing is a kind of execution testing in which the application’s behavior is estimated while unexpectedly rising the quantity of dynamic clients during the load test.

74) What is UI testing?

UI or UI testing is a sort of testing that targets observing Graphical User Interface bugs in the application and makes sure that the GUI follows the specifications.

75) What is usability testing?

Usability testing is the sort of testing that targets deciding the simplicity of utilizing the application.

76) What is Accessibility testing?

Accessibility testing is the sort of testing which targets deciding the usability or activity of the application explicitly for individuals with handicaps.

77) What is compatibility testing?

Compatibility testing verifies programming to notice how viable the product is with a specific climate – working framework, stage, or equipment.

78) What is configuration testing?

Setup testing is the kind of testing used to assess the configurational prerequisites of the product alongside the impact of changing the necessary arrangement.

79) What is Localization testing?

Localization testing is a procedure to check programming conduct, exactness, and reasonableness for explicit areas and locales.

80) What is Globalization testing?

Globalization testing is a kind of testing where the application is assessed for its working across the world in various societies, districts, and nations.

81) What is Security testing?

Security testing is a kind of testing that targets assessing the togetherness, verification, approval, accessibility, and classification of the application under test.

82) What is penetration testing?

Penetration testing additionally called pen testing is a cyberattack recreation sent off on your PC framework. By doing consistent pen testing organizations can get master unbiased third-party feedback on their security processes Though potentially time-consuming and costly, pen testing can help prevent extremely expensive and damaging breaches.

83) What is robustness testing?

Robustness testing is any quality confirmation philosophy focused on testing the robustness of the software. Robustness testing has additionally been utilized to depict the method involved with confirming the power (for example accuracy) of test cases in a test interaction.

84) What is concurrency testing?

concurrency When numerous users are logged in, testing is defined as a testing approach for identifying faults in an application. At the conclusion of the day, watch the impact as a large number of clients engage in a comparable activity at the same time. This testing is also known as multiuser testing.

85) What is backend testing?

Backend Testing is a trying strategy that checks the server-side or data set of web applications or a product. Backend testing is used to ensure that the application layer or data set a layer of a web application or programme is free of database faults such as data loss.

Database testing is another term for backend testing. The information entered in the front end will be put away in the back-end data set. The data set might be MySQL, SQL Server, Oracle, and so forth The information will be coordinated in the tables as records and it is utilized to help the substance of the page.

86) What is A/B testing?

A/B testing is a technique for looking at two versions of a website page or application against one another to figure out which one performs better.A/B testing is basically an experiment where at least two variations of a page are displayed to clients aimlessly, and factual examination is utilized to figure out which variation performs better for a given change objective.

87) What is risk analysis?

The probability of any undesirable incident is characterized as Risk. In software testing, it is the method involved in identifying the risks in applications or software that you built and focusing on them to test. From that point forward, the process of assigning the level of risk is done. The order of the risk happens, thus, the effect of the risk is determined.

88) What is the difference between regression and retesting?

Regression testing Retesting
Relapse Testing is characterized as a kind of programming testing to affirm that a new program or code change has not unfavorably impacted existing features As the name, itself suggests Retesting basically intends to test something once more
It is done for passed test cases It is done for failed test cases
This testing does not have defect verification as to its part This testing has defect verification as to its part

89) What is the difference between Release and Build?

Release Build
It is the circulation of the final version of the application The build is basically a conversion of source code to an executable code that can be run on a computer
It occurs occasionally It occurs frequently
Testing is no longer required Still in testing or yet to be tested

90) What is the difference between Bug leakage and Bug Release?

Bug leakage Bug release
Bug leakage when a bug is missed by a tester, and discovered by end-user Bug release basically means that when a specific version of the software is released with a set of known bugs

91) What do you mean by Defect Triage?

Defect Triage is an interaction to focus on the defects based on severity, risk, frequency of occurrence. The system helps in setting up an interaction for analyzers and engineers to fix however many as could be expected under the circumstances deserts by focusing on them dependent on boundaries distinguished and fixed by the group.

92) What is a test harness? Why do we need a test harness?

Test Harness in Software Testing is an assortment of stubs, drivers, and other supporting devices needed to mechanize test execution. Test tackle executes tests by utilizing a test library and produces test reports. Test tackle contains all the data expected to arrange and run a test like experiments, target organization port(TDP), source record under test, hits, and so forth.

93) Why use Test Harness?

  • It automates the testing process.
  • To deal with the complicated condition that testers are seeing as hard to stimulate.
  • It supports debugging.
  • Productivity of system is increased.

94) What is all pair testing?

All pair testing also called pairwise testing is a testing methodology taken for testing the product utilizing the combinatorial technique. It’s a strategy to test every one of the conceivable discrete combinations of the boundaries in question.

Expect we have a piece of programming to be tried which has got 5 information fields and 10 potential settings for each info field. Then, at that point, there are 5^5 potential contributions to be tried.

95) What is failover testing?

Failover testing is a procedure that approves assuming a framework can assign additional assets and back up all the data and activities when a framework flops suddenly because of some reason. This test decides the capacity of a framework to deal with basic disappointments and handle additional servers.

96) What is fuzz testing?

Fuzz testing ordinarily includes contributing an enormous amount of random data, called fluff, to the product or framework being tried trying to make it crash or advance its protections. Assuming that weakness is found, a software tool called a fuzzer can be utilized to distinguish the likely causes.

97) What is pilot testing?

Pilot Testing is characterized as a kind of Software Testing that confirms a part of the framework or the whole framework under a constant working condition. The reason for the Pilot Test is to assess the possibility, time, cost, hazard, and execution of an examination project. This testing is done precisely between the UAT and Production.

In Pilot testing, a selected group of end clients attempt the framework under test and give the feedback before the full arrangement of the framework.

98) What is dev-box Testing?

In Dev Box testing, a quality architect approves, tests, and checks an element in scope on the developer’s machine. A fundamental methodology through which one guarantees the quality of a feature.

99) What is mutation testing?

Testing is a kind of programming testing where certain statements of the source code are changed to check assuming the experiments can observe mistakes in source code.

The objective of this testing is to ensure the quality of test cases in terms of reliability that it should fail the mutated source code.

100) What is the requirement traceability matrix(RTM)?

(RTM) is a record that guides and follows client necessity with experiments. It catches all requirements proposed by the customer and necessity detectability in a solitary report, conveyed at the finish of the Software development life cycle. The fundamental motivation behind Requirement Traceability Matrix is to approve that all requirements are checked through experiments with the end goal that no usefulness is unchecked during Software testing.

101) What is cyclomatic complexity?

Cyclomatic complexity is a source code complexity measurement that is being matched up to a number of coding errors. It is determined by creating a Control Flow Graph of the code, which counts the number of linearly independent pathways that pass through a software module.

102) What are the entry criteria in software testing?

Entry criteria are a bunch of conditions that permit a task to perform, or without any of these conditions, the task cannot be performed. While setting the entry criteria, it is additionally essential to define the time frame when the entry criteria item is available to start the process.

103) What are exit criteria in software testing?

Exit Criteria for STLC stages can be characterized as items/documents/actions/tasks that must be completed before concluding the current phase and continuing on to the following stage. Exit criteria are a bunch of assumptions; this should be met before concluding the STLC phase.

104) What is the difference between testing and debugging?

Testing Debugging
It is the execution of the product with the expectation of recognizing the defects. The interaction of fixing and resolving the defects is known as debugging.
Testing can be done either manually or by automation. The process of debugging can’t be automated
There is no need for programming knowledge for the process of testing Without knowing the programming language, debugging process can’t proceed

105) Explain the Agile methodology?

The Agile system is a method for dealing with a task by separating it into a few stages. It includes consistent cooperation with partners and nonstop improvement at each stage. When the work starts, groups cycle through a course of arranging, executing and assessing.

106) What is scrum?

Scrum is an agile development methodology utilized in the advancement of Software dependent on an iterative and steady cycle. Scrum is a versatile, quick, adaptable, and successful agile framework that is intended to convey worth to the client all through the improvement of the task. The essential goal of Scrum is to fulfill the client’s need through a climate of straightforwardness in correspondence, aggregate liability, and constant advancement.

107) What are the different roles in scrum?

ScrumMaster

ScrumMaster is the keeper of the scrum process.ScrumMaster is responsible for the smoothly running of the process and organizing critical meetings.

Product Owner.

The Product Owner is responsible for amplifying the worth of the item and crafted by the Team. How this is done may fluctuate generally across associations, Scrum Teams, and people.

The Team

The Team is self-putting together and cross-functional. That implies the group includes investigators, architects, designers, analyzers, and so on as fitting and as pertinent to the project. The scrum group cooperates intently, consistently, to guarantee the smooth progression of data and the speedy goal of issues. The scrum group conveys items iteratively and gradually, maximizing openings for input.

108) What is a scrum meeting?

Scrum is an agile framework that groups use to create items quicker by breaking huge advancement projects into more modest pieces that can be finished in short time periods. Scrum meeting is a trick everything term that can depict various sorts of gatherings held by Scrum groups. Examples of Scrum gatherings incorporate everyday standups, run arranging meetings.

109) Explain TDD (Test Driven Development).

Test-driven Development begins with creating tests for every last one of the highlights. The test may fail as the tests are grown even before the development. The improvement group then, at that point, creates and refactors the code to breeze through the assessment.

Test-driven Development is connected with the test-first programming developed as a component of outrageous programming ideas.

110) What is a Bug?

The bug can be defined as any variance between the actual and expected condition known as a bug. Whenever we test the functionality of an application, if the functionality is not working as per the expectation, then we can say that the application has a bug.

111) What is a defect?

In software testing, any variance between the actual and expected result is known as a defect. In other words, if an application is not working as per the expectation, then we can say that the application has a defect.

112) What are some defect reporting attributes?

Here are some defect reporting attributes:

  • Defect Id: A defect id is a unique number, it’s an identifier of a defect.
  • Defect Summary: It’s a one-line summary or we can say a defect title.
  • Defect Description: It’s information about defects.
  • Step To Reproduce: it’s a collection of steps that are followed to reproduce a defect.
  • Expected Result: an expected condition can be defined as the idle condition when there is no bug in an application.
  • Actual Result: it defined the current state of the application I.e., the current behavior when there is a bug in an application.
  • Severity: defined the impact of the defect on the application.
  • Priority: defined how early the defect should be fixed.

113) What are some of the bug or defect management tools?

1) Teamwork: Teamwork is one of the most widely used bug management tools and the organization or manager loves teamwork as it helps them organize tasks and personnel. co-partnership with customers and internal team members is easy with teamwork projects. In addition, teamwork also offers a chat and helpdesk solution.

2) Trello: Trello was conceived by Fog Creek Software, now it’s become acquired by Atlassian, we can think of Trello as a virtual way of working with sticky notes on wallboard. Trello is easy to use and extremely user-friendly, as well as flexible. most of the software companies used Trello s a bug tracking and defect management tool.

3) Jira: Jira software is one of the biggest leaders in the defect management tools space and is widely used by the organization which is Developed by the Atlassian group, and is generally used to track and monitor issues and bugs, and also provide monitoring of tasks related to software development projects. Jira is extremely customizable and provides an easy interface also provide powerful search capabilities, filtering, and custom workflows. We can easily log bugs in Jira.

4) Asana: Asana is a popular alternative defect management tool; they pride themselves in being compatible with a wide range of businesses both small and large and aim to take the anarchy out of project management. tracking bugs in asana is easy.

4) Redbooth: Redbooth is a modern project management tool with a devious user interface.it also provides a feature to Gmail integration that will allow us to turn email into task directly from your inbox.

114) What is defect density?

The number of flaws confirmed in software during a particular time of operation or development divided by the size of the software is known as defect density.

115) What is defect priority?

Priority is defined by how early the defect should be fixed in software.it will decide the order of fixing a defect in the software, if the priority of defect is higher sooner the defect should be resolved.

There are generally three categories of priority are as below:

Low: If the defect priority is set to low, the effect of the defect on the application is low.

Medium: If the defect priority is set to medium then it should be fixed when the high priority bug is fixed in the application.

High: The defect can be resolved as soon as possible if the priority is set to high. if not fixed it will affect the system’s functionality.

116) What is defect severity?

Bug Severity or Defect Severity in testing is the impact of the defect on the software application under test, or we can say that the higher the severity, the higher the impact of the defect on the application under test.

if an impact of a defect is higher on a system, then the severity level of the defect is high. Generally, a Quality assurance engineer is responsible to determine the severity level of a bug or defect.

there are generally four categories of severity:

Critical: Critical severity can indicate complete shut-down of the process, nothing can proceed further.

Major: Major severity can be defined as a highly severe defect that collapses the system. However, certain functionality of the system is working as per the expectations.

Medium: Medium severity can cause some undesirable behavior, but the system is still functional.

Low: Low severity won’t cause any major breakdown of the system.

117) Give an example of Low Priority-Low severity, Low Priority-High severity, High Priority-Low severity, High Priority-High severity defects.

Low Priority and Low Severity: Any spelling mistake on paragraph but not on the homepage or cover page.

Low Priority-High Severity: In the Facebook login page suppose the password text field and login button overlap and this will create an issue for login functionality.

High Priority-Low severity: The example of high priority and low severity is if Facebook is misspelled (or Facebook logo is misspelled) on the homepage.

High Priority-High severity: Take an example of a Facebook application where the user is not able to login to the Facebook application, which will not allow the user to use the Facebook application.

118) What is a blocker?

Blocker can be defined as high priority and high severity bug that blocks several functionalities of the application.

119) What is a critical bug?

A critical bug can impact the major functionality of the application and we cannot be delivered the application without fixing the bug, a critical bug is differing from a blocker bug as a blocker bug block certain functionality of the application but the critical bug doesn’t block the functionality of an application.

120) Explain the bug life cycle or the different states of a bug.

The defect life cycle can define different phases of the bug, or it can also define the journey of the bug. The different phases are as follows:

stages of bug or defet life cycle

New: This is the first phase of Defect when it detects by the tester and yet to be validated.

Assign: This is the phase where we assign the defect to the development team but yet not resolved by the developer.

Active: The defect is addressed by the developer and investigated by the developer.

Test: The defect is fixed by the developer and now it’s in the testing phase.

Verified: If a defect is fixed and it’s tested properly by the tester.

Closed: when the bug is fixed and the tester marks the defect as closed.

Reopened: when the bug is reopened and is not fixed and the QA mark it reopens.

Deferred: If a defect cannot be addressed in a particular build, and it’s deferred to a future release.

Rejected: A defect can be rejected if the defect is not a defect if it’s a duplicate and if it’s non-reproducible.

121) What are the different test design techniques?

Test design techniques are useful to test software applications, the different test design technique is as follows:

1) Static Testing: static testing is a software testing technique where we analyze various test documents like requirement specifications, user stories, and business requirements to find defects.

Static design techniques are as follows:

  • Walkthrough
  • Inspection
  • Audit
  • Informal review etc.

2) Dynamic Testing: In dynamic testing, we can execute an application to test the functionality of an application.

Below are some dynamic testing techniques:

  • Specification-based testing
  • Experienced based testing
  • Structure-based testing

122) What is Static Testing?

Static testing is an important testing approach where the deliverables from each phase of testing are analyzed in terms to find out defects, it’s a static process thus we cannot execute the application we just analyze the software requirement, business requirement, user story in the initial phase of testing to find a defect. By using the static approach, we can save money and time, also this will increase the product quality.

123) What is Dynamic Testing?

Dynamic testing is part of testing where we can execute an application to check whether it satisfied all the requirements given by the stakeholder and our application works as per expectation. Thus, it’s a dynamic approach so we can execute code to check its working as per expectation.

124) Explain the different types of specification-based test design techniques?

Specification-based test design techniques can also be known as black-box testing. which involves testing of functionality of the application under test without knowing the internal structure of a program.

The different types of specification-based test design techniques are as follows:

  • Equivalence class partitioning – Equivalence class portioning are an important testing approach where test data are divided into equal classes and test case are executed one test data from each partition to analyze the functionality.
  • Boundary value analysis –Boundary value analysis is a widely used test case design technique where the test case is designed considering boundary value.
  • Decision tables – The decision table shows the combination of input data with their associated behavior.
  • Cause-effect graph – it’s a graphical representation of the result
  • Use case testing – Use case defined the interaction between the software and the end-user.

automation testing interview questions

125) Explain equivalence class partitioning.

Equivalence class partitioning is a black box test design technique where the test data are divided into equivalence classes, and executing test case into each partition at least once of equivalent data from which test cases can be derived.

For example: If a system can accept a value between 1 to 100.

Then, the equivalence class partitioning for this scenario is:

Valid equivalence class partition: value between 1 to 100.

Invalid equivalence class partition: value -1 ,101, 0, decimal number and alphabet.

126) What is boundary value analysis?

Boundary-value analysis is a software testing technique that is widely used in software testing. In boundary value analysis the test is designed to check errors at boundaries.

For example, A system can accept ages between 18 to 60, in this case, the Boundary value is

TC001: Validate AGE by entering 17: Invalid Boundary Check

TC002: Validate AGE by entering 18: valid Boundary Check

TC003: Validate AGE by entering 25: valid Boundary Check

TC004: Validate AGE by entering 60: valid Boundary Check

TC005: Validate AGE by entering 61: Invalid Boundary Check

127) What is decision table testing?

Decision table testing is a software testing technique that is a tabular representation of input with their associated output, it’s a systemic approach where the different input and according to input the system behavior is captured.

128) What is a cause-effect graph?

A cause-effect graph testing is a black-box test design technique that is a very important testing method. A cause-effect graph is a graphical representation of input i.e., cause, output i.e., effect, and their corresponding effect which is used for test design. cause-effect graph technique uses different notations representing AND, OR, NOT, etc relation between input conditions with their corresponding output.

129) What is state transition testing?

State Transition Testing is also referred to as a black-box testing technique where changes made in input conditions cause state changes or output changes in the Application under Test (AUT). State transition testing helps to analyze the behavior of an application for different input conditions. A tester can test applications with positive and negative input tests and capture the output accordingly.

130) What is use case testing?

Use Case in Testing is defined as the interaction between the software and the end-user, use cases are made on the basis of user action and the response by the software application, the use case is generally used to develop a test case at the system or acceptable level.

131) What is Test Coverage?

It is a metric that measures the amount of testing performed on software applications while executing the test cases. Test coverage for any software can be calculated as the percentage of the number of test areas covered with respect to the total number of test areas.

132) What is structure-based testing?

Structure-based testing is also known as white-box testing where the programmer should have knowledge of the programming language, and also needs knowledge of the internal structure of the system.

There are different code coverage Methods:

  • Statement Coverage: Statement coverage can be defined as the number of statements executed in a source code. It’s the ratio between the total number of statements executed and the total number of statements a source code has.
  • Decision Coverage: Decision coverage is the ratio between the number of decisions examine and the total number of decision outcomes.
  • Branch Coverage: Branch coverage can be defined as the ratio between the number of executed branches and the total number of branches, branch coverage ensures that each decision condition from each branch is tested or executed at least once properly.

133) What is code coverage?

Code Coverage can be defined as how much code is being tested in an application.

Code coverage can be calculated as follows:

Code Coverage = (Total Number of lines of code executed)/ (Total Number of lines of code) * 100%

Below is the different type of code coverage analysis:

  • Statement coverage and Block coverage
  • Function coverage
  • Function call coverage
  • Branch coverage
  • Modified condition/decision coverage

Conclusion:

That’s all it is, guys! We’ve come to the end of the ‘Manual Testing Interview Questions’ topic. While you’re at it, you might want to look over Automation Testing Interview Questions.

Special thanks to all authors(Twisa, Pallavi, Laxman, Risha, and Deepali) for contributing to this article.

Dhvani Bhavsar

Dhvani works as an SEO and Content Strategist at QACraft. She is a Computer science engineer with a degree and has 5+ years of experience in SEO, SEM, SMM, SMO, Content marketing, Photoshop, etc. In her free time, she loves to play guitar and Car driving.

https://qacraft.com/author/dhvani-bhavsar/